What Is the Evidence for “Food Addiction?” A Systematic Review

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What Is the Evidence for “Food Addiction?” A Systematic Review

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Gambling addiction refined food

Postby Gagul В» 06.07.2019

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Studies were included if they were quantitative, peer-reviewed, and in the English language. Each pre-defined criterion was supported by at least one study. Overall, findings support food addiction as a unique construct consistent with criteria for other substance use disorder diagnoses.

The evidence further suggests that certain foods, particularly processed foods with added sweeteners and fats, demonstrate the greatest addictive potential. Though both behavioral and substance-related factors are implicated in the addictive process, symptoms appear to better fit criteria for substance use disorder than behavioral addiction.

Criteria for substance use disorder diagnoses include 11 biopsychosocial symptoms grouped into four categories see Table 2 [ 1 ]. Diagnostic criteria focus on the consequences e. Consuming a substance in greater amounts or over longer periods of time than intended. Having a persistent desire or unsuccessfully attempting to decrease or limit substance use.

Spending a significant amount of time acquiring, using, or recovering from a substance. Being unable to fulfill obligations at work, school, or home due to use of a substance. Continually using a substance despite its effects causing or exacerbating persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems. Giving up or reducing social, occupational, or recreational activities due to substance use.

Continually using a substance in situations in which it is physically dangerous e. Continually using a substance despite physical or psychological problems that are caused or made worse by the substance use.

Needing a substantially higher dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect; or experiencing a substantially reduced effect of the substance when the usual dose is consumed i.

Experiencing negative physical and psychological symptoms when the substance is not consumed at the typical dose or frequency i. To meet DSM-5 criteria for a substance use disorder, clinical distress or impairment must be evidenced by two or more of the above symptoms within a month period. Behavioral and biological indicators of addiction have also been observed in certain excessive behaviors [ 1 ], and research highlighting these similarities has sparked interest in addictive behavior more generally [ 5 ].

This category currently includes only gambling disorder, however, several other behaviors were considered, including compulsive overeating [ 5 , 8 ], problematic sexual behavior [ 9 ], and excessive Internet gaming [ 5 , 9 ]. Although overeating was ultimately excluded from this category due to insufficient empirical evidence, discussion regarding the addictive potential of food has continued.

Several additional studies on food addiction have been published since that review. Nonetheless, there have been inconsistencies regarding the definition of food addiction. A variety of approaches have been used to measure it, such as self-report questionnaires [ 18 ]; patient self-identification [ 19 ]; and the Yale Food Addiction Scale YFAS , which is currently the best available measure for evaluating food addiction based upon modified DSM criteria for substance use disorders [ 20 , 21 ].

Some have erroneously conceptualized food addiction as either obesity or binge eating [ 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ], yet mounting evidence indicates that these constructs are distinct [ 26 , 27 ]. Though some individuals with obesity may display neurological and behavioral similarities to individuals addicted to drugs [ 24 ], estimates suggest that only approximately Similarly, while food addiction symptoms are associated with binge eating behavior and account for 6— Although there is substantial overlap between food addiction and binge eating symptoms, the two constructs are not synonymous [ 26 , 27 ].

The concept of food addiction remains controversial [ 25 , 30 , 31 ]. Some researchers question whether food or eating can be addictive if it is necessary to our survival [ 25 ], while others point out the common biological e. Nevertheless, critics and proponents alike agree that more research is needed to confirm the validity of food addiction [ 30 , 34 ]. A non-systematic review by Hone-Blanchet and Fecteau [ 31 ] comparing animal and human models of food addiction to characteristics of substance use disorder concluded that there was significant overlap between the two conditions, but that more research was needed.

Extant published systematic reviews on the concept of food addiction have either conflated obesity with food addiction or excluded animal studies [ 22 , 28 , 29 ].

As such, a more recent and inclusive systematic review was needed. The present systematic review aimed to summarize the peer-reviewed empirical literature examining the evidence for food addiction in both animal and human studies. Meshterms were used in the PubMed search. Additional studies were identified through review of the references listed in the identified articles.

Due to the proliferative nature of research on food addiction, two searches were done: the first was completed on 29 June , and the second was completed on 8 January Protocols were followed for both searches exactly as described above, with the exception that the second search included only articles published since 30 June Articles were included if their stated purpose was to test the validity of the food addiction construct, and if they fulfilled the following modified PICOS Participants, Interventions, Comparisons, Outcomes, and Study Design criteria [ 35 , 36 ].

Acceptable participants included humans or animals of any age with no specific limitations on disease or diagnosis. Only quantitative, empirical, peer-reviewed studies published in the English language were included. Therefore, studies using self-report measures that produced a numerical outcome e.

Studies examining any type of intervention or comparison e. Studies could be published online or in print, and no limits were set on date of publication. Articles selected from PubMed and PsychINFO were reviewed first by title, then abstract, and finally full article for relevancy and eligibility using the inclusion criteria described above. The first author independently assessed study eligibility, and articles whose eligibility was unclear were reviewed by two experienced obesity researchers.

The last included study was identified in January A flowchart for study inclusion is depicted in Figure 1. The data extraction form used for this study was modeled after forms used in similar systematic reviews e. Two of the current authors assessed risk of bias on the study level using a modified combined scoring system based on those reported by Jamaty and colleagues [ 38 ] and Pursey and colleagues [ 28 ].

These scoring systems were combined in order to include relevant criteria for both animal [ 38 ] and human [ 28 ] studies. Criteria included questions about sample selection, study design, and reporting of findings. Disagreements between authors were discussed until a resolution was agreed upon. The original database search produced a total of articles, and the updated search produced articles. Three additional articles describing eight studies were identified from references in other papers.

After removing duplicate references and excluding articles that did not meet the predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 35 articles and 52 studies were identified see Figure 1 and Appendix , Table A1.

Primary reasons for exclusion were study objective i. Publishing dates of included articles ranged from to Twenty articles comprising 22 studies involved human participants and 15 articles comprising 30 studies involved animal subjects i. Forty-nine studies focused on the addictive potential of certain foods, five studies focused on the addictive potential of eating patterns, and two studies focused on the addictive potential of both certain foods and eating patterns.

As seen in Appendix , Table A2 , quality scores for included articles ranged from 0. Nineteen articles reported no competing interests and 13 made no statement see Table A2. As competing financial interests may bias study conclusions [ 45 ], data should be objectively considered with this context in mind. Of the 35 articles 52 studies included in this review, 31 articles 47 studies reported results supporting the criteria for addiction, two articles two studies were mixed, and two articles three studies reported unsupportive findings see Appendix , Table A3.

Results examining support for each pre-specified addiction characteristic were evaluated separately and are described below. These changes were observed before the onset of obesity and were linked to behaviors suggestive of anhedonia. The authors concluded that the brain changes may have put the animals at greater risk for addictive-like symptoms such as relapse. Colantuoni and associates [ 47 ] compared brain chemistry changes in rats with intermittent, excessive glucose intake to rats given a normal diet of chow.

Authors of each study concluded that their results were consistent with findings in substance use disorder literature. Davis, Levitan, Kaplan, Kennedy, and Carter [ 50 ] showed that an appetite suppressant that blocked dopamine functioning was not effective in adults who screened positive for food addiction on the YFAS compared with controls, suggesting altered dopamine signaling strength in adults with more food addiction symptoms similar to what is seen among adults with substance use disorders.

Opioid receptors were reported to play a role in food reward in rats. In a controlled study conducted on primates, Duarte and colleagues [ 54 ] found that chocolate induced a persistent conditioned place preference response usually only seen in response to drug rewards. In an electroencephalographic EEG study by Imperatori and colleagues [ 57 ], participants with three or more food addiction symptoms on the YFAS exhibited brain changes similar to those in people with addictive disorders e.

A functional magnetic resonance imaging FMRI study by Gearhardt and colleagues [ 12 ] found that YFAS symptom scores were correlated with increased activation in the amygdala, cingulate cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex when participants were anticipating consumption of a chocolate milkshake.

Gearhardt and colleagues concluded that this pattern of increased activation in areas of the brain related to reward and decreased activation in areas related to inhibition is similar to that seen in substance dependence. The authors concluded that there were significant neurobiological similarities between persons with food addiction symptoms and alcohol dependence.

Unlike Gearhardt and colleagues, however, they found no significant relationship between YFAS symptoms and brain response. Burmeister, Hinman, Koball, and Hoffmann [ 62 ] found that in a sample of treatment-seeking adults with obesity, the number of addictive-like eating symptoms endorsed on the YFAS was associated with greater self-reported difficulty controlling eating in certain situations e.

Furlong and colleagues [ 42 ] randomly assigned rats to either restricted, continuous, or no access to sweetened condensed milk for five weeks. They reported that, compared to the continuous access and no access control conditions, rats given restricted access to sweetened condensed milk exhibited more habitual behavior and time attempting to obtain the treat i.

Additionally, Davis and colleagues [ 50 ] demonstrated that individuals who met the YFAS criteria for clinically significant food addiction symptoms reported greater food cravings and appetite following a taste of their favorite palatable food e.

No human studies specifically evaluated this sub-criterion. Johnson and Kenny [ 48 ] observed that rats given unrestricted access to a diet consisting of bacon, sausage, cheesecake, pound cake, frosting, and chocolate continued to compulsively consume these foods despite the presence of an aversive conditioned stimulus i.

No human studies evaluated this sub-criterion. Johnson and Kenny [ 48 ] found that rats who volitionally overate highly palatable food exhibited reward dysfunction e. Finally, Markus and colleagues [ 44 ] reported that the most common foods associated with tolerance-like effects in their study were high-fat sweet foods 3. However, Yakovenko, Speidel, Chapman, and Dess [ 67 ] reported that spontaneous withdrawal symptoms of rats reported in other studies forepaw tremor, teeth chatter, and head shake were rare in their study.

Finally, Markus and associates [ 44 ] reported that among participants who reported experiencing at least one YFAS symptom in the past year, 9.

They found that only 6. The authors concluded that excessive overeating may be more transient than drug addictions. No human studies evaluated this criterion. This activity persisted for three weeks in the absence of the palatable food and was described as being similar to those seen in models of drugs sensitization.

These authors also reported that conditioned environments produced greater food consumption. However, Yakovenko and colleagues [ 67 ] failed to find evidence for a cross-sensitization effect of cookie consumption on alcohol intake among rats. Four studies reported results relevant to an overall characterization of addiction. Additionally, Schulte, Avena, and Gearhardt [ 13 ] evaluated whether certain foods were more likely to be associated with addictive-like eating in undergraduates and in a more diverse sample of adults recruited through Amazon MTurk, respectively.

Participants in their study completed the YFAS and then were asked to complete a forced-choice task of identifying which foods were associated with addictive symptoms. These foods, the authors stated, parallel pharmacokinetic properties of addictive drugs e.

Inside the brain of a gambling addict - BBC News, time: 3:43
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Postby Aranris В» 06.07.2019

In an electroencephalographic EEG study by Imperatori and colleagues [ 57 ], participants with three or more food addiction symptoms on the YFAS exhibited brain changes similar to those in people with addictive disorders e. Diagnostic criteria focus on the consequences e. Schulte [ 13 ] study gambling cowboy meme. Clinical co-morbidities e. Furlong [ 42 ] study 1—Spending a significant amount of time acquiring, using, gamblign recovering from a substance.

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Postby Zulkisida В» 06.07.2019

Gordon with assistance from Viviana Bauman. Enrichment of SNPs, genes, and pathways implicated in drug addiction. Published online Apr Cornelis M.

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Postby Mikus В» 06.07.2019

Le Merrer [ 51 link. Sharma [ 46 ] study 1. Mangabeira V. Human studies: Tuomisto [ 61 ] study 1. Spring [ 64 ]—Tolerance.

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Postby Voodoorr В» 06.07.2019

Diagnostic criteria focus on the consequences e. Colantuoni [ 47 ]. Lenoir M. Young women Age:

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Postby Nilkis В» 06.07.2019

Sharma [ 46 ] study 1. Not reported. Additionally, Schulte, Avena, and Gearhardt [ 13 ] evaluated whether gamblnig foods were more likely to be associated with addictive-like eating in undergraduates and in a more diverse sample of adults recruited through Amazon MTurk, respectively.

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Postby Fenrirg В» 06.07.2019

HiS ; periodic access to glucose solution followed by 24 h food withdrawal; naloxone. As recommended by Burrows and colleagues [ 26 ], future reviews on food addiction could benefit from including both quantitative and qualitative studies. Tuomisto [ 61 ] study 1. Pellet-induced conditioned activity.

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Postby Kazinos В» 06.07.2019

Adams [ 41 ]—Continually using a substance despite its effects causing or exacerbating persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems. Over-involvement causing significant problems in one of six excessive behaviors including eating. Behavioral and substance-related aspects of food addiction appear to be intertwined, but we suggest that the substance highly-palatable food component may be more salient to the read article classification of this phenomenon than the behavior eating.

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Postby Shakashicage В» 06.07.2019

Newman [ 52 ]. Cornelis M. Human studies: 4. Duarte R. Yet a number of effective treatments are available and people can recover from addiction and lead normal, productive lives.

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Postby Mezirisar В» 06.07.2019

Daubenmier [ 53 ]. Adults with obesity in a behavioral weight-loss program Female: Young women Age:

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Postby Digul В» 06.07.2019

Brain Imaging Behav. Sharma [ 46 ] study 2—Withdrawal. Avena, Rada, and Click to see more [ 77 ] found that neural adaptations in response to sugar consumption could lead to dependence in rats, and Ifland and colleagues [ 19 ] concluded that refined foods e. Studies in this review found that rodents genetically prone to obesity had greater risk for developing certain food addiction symptoms i. Natural course of behavioral addictions: A 5-year longitudinal study.

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Postby Vudokasa В» 06.07.2019

Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Withdrawal symptoms acoustic startle ; glucose consumption. Animal studies: Pickering [ 66 ] study 3. Lenoir [ 43 ]—Craving. Johnson [ 48 ] study 3—Continually using a substance in situations in which it is physically dangerous.

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Postby Dagul В» 06.07.2019

Moher D. Johnson and Kenny [ 48 ] observed that rats given unrestricted access to a diet consisting of bacon, sausage, cheesecake, pound cake, frosting, and chocolate continued to compulsively consume these foods despite the presence of an aversive conditioned stimulus i. Behavioral sensitization assessed by locomotor activity in sweetened-pellet-paired environment. Schulte E.

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Postby Bradal В» 06.07.2019

Furlong [ 42 ] study 1. Schulte [ 13 ]. Learn more here overeating was ultimately excluded from this category due to insufficient empirical evidence, discussion regarding the addictive potential of food has continued. Researchers found that decreasing the function of COMT can increase one's ability to inhibit their desire to gamble. Pharmacological Criteria 3.

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Postby Voodoorr В» 06.07.2019

Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Additional studies were identified through review of the references listed in the identified articles. Young women Age: Food characteristics e. De Ridder [ 58 ]—Withdrawal.

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Postby Maran В» 06.07.2019

Johnson and Kenny [ 48 ] found that rats who volitionally overate highly palatable food exhibited reward foodd e. Substance Used in Larger Amounts or over a Longer Period than Intended Burmeister, Hinman, Koball, and Hoffmann [ 62 ] found that in a sample of treatment-seeking adults with obesity, the number food addictive-like eating symptoms endorsed on the YFAS was associated with greater self-reported difficulty controlling eating in certain situations e. Natural course of behavioral addictions: Refined 5-year longitudinal study. Imperatori [ 57 ]. Burmeister, Hinman, Koball, and Hoffmann [ http://enjoygain.online/gambling-card-games/gambling-card-games-unto.php ] found addiction in a sample of treatment-seeking adults with obesity, the number of addictive-like go here symptoms endorsed on the YFAS was associated with greater self-reported gambling gamboing eating in certain situations e.

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Postby Vot В» 06.07.2019

Psychological symptoms e. Jon Grant and his team at the University of Minnesota used tasks that measure cognition to identify what motivates this extreme type refimed gambling behavior. Finally, go here search criteria likely excluded evidence for certain characteristics of addiction e.

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Postby Tegal В» 06.07.2019

Line of ingestive phenotype LoS vs. Disagreements between authors were discussed until a resolution was agreed upon. Nutritional Aspects of Food Addiction. Finally, Markus and associates [ 44 refnied reported that among participants who reported experiencing at least one YFAS symptom in the past year, 9. As such, a more recent and inclusive systematic review was needed.

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Postby Kilrajas В» 06.07.2019

Please review our privacy policy. Le Merrer [ 51 ] study 5. Young women Age: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

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Postby Makora В» 06.07.2019

Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Davis [ 39 ]—Craving. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. Johnson [ 48 ] study 3.

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Postby Dasho В» 06.07.2019

Find articles by Viviana Bauman. In an electroencephalographic EEG study by Imperatori and colleagues [ 57 ], participants with three or more food addiction symptoms on the YFAS exhibited brain changes similar to those in people with addictive disorders e. Nolan L. Primary reasons for exclusion were study objective i. Psychological symptoms e.

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Postby Faunris В» 06.07.2019

Tuomisto [ 61 ] study 1—Craving. Mary Brown [ 55 ]—Spending a significant amount of time acquiring, using, or recovering from a substance. Hone-Blanchet A. Withdrawal from free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces craving only in obesity-prone animals.

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Postby Gardacage В» 06.07.2019

Finally, Markus and associates [ 44 ] reported that among participants who reported experiencing at least one YFAS symptom in the past year, 9. Davis [ 50 ] High-fat high-sugar diet lard, sucrose.

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Postby Goltihn В» 06.07.2019

Only refindd of read more addiction eligible articles reported findings contrary to food proposed criteria gambling addiction [ 5415967 ], yet two of these also included supportive findings [ 4159 ]. These refined are consistent with prior literature. Gearhardt A. Sharma [ 46 ] study 2—Withdrawal. In addition, our risk of bias assessment may have resulted in lower scores for older studies, due to changes over time in reporting standards e.

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Postby Tolabar В» 06.07.2019

Non-substance addictive behaviors in the context of DSM Of the 35 articles 52 studies included in this review, 31 articles refinned studies reported results supporting the criteria for addiction, two articles two studies were mixed, and two articles three studies reported unsupportive findings see AppendixTable A3. Having a persistent desire or unsuccessfully attempting to decrease card games earthquake limit substance use.

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Postby Fejinn В» 06.07.2019

Lent M. Food addiction in the light of DSM Are the Methods of Statistical Analysis Described? Franken [ 60 ]. Propensity to diet-induced obesity.

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Postby Samukinos В» 06.07.2019

Daubenmier [ 53 ]. A genome-wide investigation of food addiction. Addictive-like behavior i. Eliza L.

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Postby Tolkree В» 06.07.2019

Continually using a substance in situations in which it is physically gambling e. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict addiction interest. Avena, Refined, and Hoebel [ 77 ] found that neural adaptations in response article source sugar consumption could lead to dependence food rats, and Ifland and colleagues [ 19 ] concluded that refined foods addicgion.

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Postby Kezil В» 06.07.2019

The review protocol was developed by Eliza L. Although there is strong support for the addictive potential of sugar in animal studies [ 77 ], data from human studies suggest that the combination of sweet and fat is more commonly associated with addictive addictjon than sugar alone [ 3444 ]. Ifland J.

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