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Internet Gaming Disorder

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Online games arterial download

Postby Akinozshura В» 17.03.2019

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Internet gaming is one of the most popular online leisure activities. These activities, particularly massively multiplayer online role-playing games, deliver pleasure, a sense of achievement, social interaction, and an immersive experience to online gamers. However, excessive online gaming may have negative consequences by limiting real-life experiences. In this review, we focus on the literature supporting IGD as an addictive disorder.

We review epidemiologic, neurocognitive, and brain imaging studies to provide suggestions for future studies. We also discuss the intensity and frequency criteria used to distinguish subjects with IGD from casual online gamers. Video games are now one of the most popular media for connecting people throughout the world. However, loss of control over video games played online has revealed a series of negative consequences.

Extensive studies have provided new perspectives of IGD [ 3 ]. This review focuses on the reasons IGD should be considered an addictive disorder and proposes diagnostic criteria for distinguishing IGD from casual online gaming. Among Internet-based games, massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPGs are the most complex and require the most intensive social interaction [ 4 ].

A MMORPG provides an immersive virtual environment in which users can interact with one another or with nonplayer characters [ 6 ].

Zanetta et al. Fuster et al. Lesser motivations include achievement, followed by identification with an avatar and escape from reality dissociation. These reports suggest that people who play online games such as MMORPGs are attracted to online environments because they provide various psychological pleasures.

Previous studies indicate that optimal experiences motivate people to continue playing online games. Examples of optimal experiences include effective interaction with the system and pleasant social interactions with other gamers [ 9 ]. New Internet technologies that enable real-time interaction and a smooth visual field have resulted in gaming experiences comparable to those in the real world and have led to the development of effective delivery systems that provide high user satisfaction.

Although users may be attracted to the pleasure, sense of achievement, social interaction, and immersive experience provided by playing MMORPGs, excessive online gaming may have negative consequences by limiting real-life experiences. Of all online activities, online gaming has the strongest association with compulsive Internet use [ 11 ]. Excessive computer game playing without monetary rewards is considered problematic [ 12 ].

Further, addiction to online games, particularly MMORPGs, might be associated with sleep-related problems, such as insomnia and poor sleep quality [ 14 ]. Moreover, a stronger belief in the realism of the games and more time spent playing MMORPGs increase online support but decrease offline social support [ 15 ].

In contrast, players with high in-game social support had fewer negative psychological symptoms. Additionally, heavy players had significantly less offline social support and a greater severity of negative symptoms.

Other authors acknowledge that MMORPGs provide social support but raise concerns about the potential harm of excessive use [ 17 ]. Despite the reportedly positive effects of online gaming, excessive use of online games, particularly MMORPGs [ 18 ], can negatively affect psychological well-being, social interaction, and health.

Thus, the negative consequences are prominent in players who meet the criteria for IGD. Achab et al. The authors also reported that the IGD group had high rates of irritability, low mood, and sleep problems.

Another prospective study further reported that adolescents with IGD had higher than normal depression, anxiety, and social phobias and lower than normal school performance [ 19 ]. Thus, Ng and Wiemer-Hastings [ 20 ] suggested that addiction to online gaming might have the same negative consequences as substance use disorder.

King et al. The DSM-5, in section III, defines addiction to Internet gaming in conditions for further study and suggests that more evidence is needed before it is included as a standard disorder in the DSM system [ 2 ].

The DSM-5 criteria for IGD include several modifications of the diagnostic criteria used for substance use disorder, including tolerance, withdrawal, continued use despite negative consequences, failure to reduce Internet use, consistent Internet use that is greater than intended, and impaired psychosocial function.

These criteria suggest that the clinical presentation of IGD resembles that of substance use disorder. As observed in substance use disorder [ 23 ], IGD is more common in males [ 24 ]. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life are associated with a greater severity of addiction in males but not in females [ 24 ]. The personality characteristics associated with IGD include neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression [ 25 ].

Comparisons with pathologic gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion are specific characteristics of IGD [ 26 ]. High levels of impulsivity also have been associated with IGD [ 27 , 28 ]. Lastly, a prospective study found that high impulsivity is a risk factor for IGD [ 19 ]. Notably, several risk factors for IGD, including impulsivity, sensation seeking, and neuroticism, also are risk factors for substance use disorder [ 29 — 31 ].

Among adolescents, online games provide compensatory or extensive satisfaction of needs [ 32 ]. This association suggests that escape is a very important psychological mechanism contributing to IGD. Escape also is a core mechanism in negative reinforcement models of substance addiction [ 35 ]. These studies demonstrate that IGD shares several characteristics with substance use disorder, including personality traits and the reliance on Internet gaming as an escape mechanism.

Therefore, the two disorders may share similar underlying mechanisms. Although several studies reported associations between Internet addiction and substance use disorder [ 36 — 38 ], the literature on comorbidity of IGD and substance use disorder is limited. Further empirical studies are needed to demonstrate a direct association. A study of subjects with IGD showed impaired decision-making ability in a dice game task [ 39 ].

Compared with controls, the subjects with IGD also had a higher-than-normal positive implicit reaction to images associated with gambling, suggesting that implicit cognition also might be associated with dyscontrolled online gaming [ 40 ]. Further, Internet gaming addiction IGA presents cognitive biases toward information related to Internet gaming. These biases, as well as poor executive functioning skills lower mental flexibility and response inhibition , might contribute to IGD [ 41 ].

Although these studies reported that cognitive characteristics associated with substance use disorder are similar to those in IGD, the number of reports is limited.

Additional studies focusing on cognitive performance, cognitive control, implicit response, emotional control, and reward sensitivity are needed. Further, any conclusions regarding cognitive function in IGD would be premature because of design limitations of the aforementioned studies, including a lack of direct comparisons between subjects with IGD and casual online game players.

In fact, the effect of IGD on cognitive function is controversial. Because most controlled substances are known to have damaging effects on the brain, a reasonable assumption is that they impair cognitive function. However, most online games exercise several specific cognitive functions [ 4 ]. Moreover, because good performance in online gaming requires good cognitive function, the hypothesis that online gaming produces a deficit in cognitive function is questionable.

Further studies comparing cognitive functions and behavioral characteristics between IGD and casual gaming are needed to clarify the role of cognitive function in the process of addiction to online gaming. Functional MRI fMRI is one of the most important imaging tools for investigating the mechanisms of addiction, including response to a substance, vulnerability to addiction, characteristics or symptoms of addictive behavior, and consequences of addiction [ 42 ].

For imaging studies, fMRI is preferable to positron emission tomography PET and single-photon emission CT because it does not require radiation exposure.

Other advantages are its wider availability, lower expense, and superior spatial and temporal resolution [ 43 ]. The cue-induced craving paradigm is the most common strategy for using fMRI to demonstrate brain correlates of the gaming urge in subjects with IGD.

A fMRI study by Ko et al. Compared with the control group, the IGD group had higher activations of gaming cue-induced reactivity in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC , right nucleus accumbens, and right caudate nucleus.

The results also indicate that cue-induced brain reactivity in IGD resembles that in substance use disorder. Another study with an event-related design showed that in response to gaming cues, subjects with IGD had higher-than-normal activations in the bilateral DLPFC, precuneus, left posterior cingulate, parahippocampus, and right anterior cingulate. The activation pattern was consistent with the model of substance use disorder developed earlier by Volkow et al.

Therefore, the authors suggested that the DLPFC and parahippocampus are potential markers of cue-induced brain activation in subjects currently in a state of addiction to online gaming [ 46 ].

Another block-design study demonstrated that subjects with IGD had higher brain activation over the DLPFC and parahippocampus in response to gaming cues. Therefore, the authors suggested that the effects of sustained-release bupropion on craving and brain activity may resemble those in IGD and substance use disorder [ 47 ].

Ko et al. That is, the design of their study enabled comparisons of brain activation between a cue-induced gaming urge and cue-induced smoking craving in a single individual. In the comorbid group, brain patterns activated by gaming cues were similar to those activated by smoking cues. After subtracting the reaction of the control group, the comorbid group showed that the parahippocampus and anterior cingulate were activated by both the cue-induced gaming urge and the cue-induced smoking craving.

A further conjunction analysis showed that both the gaming urge and smoking craving induced significant activations of the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus. Therefore, the authors concluded that the parahippocampus may be associated with mechanisms of cue-induced brain activities common to both IGA and nicotine dependence. Despite the varying designs of the aforementioned studies of gaming cue-induced reactivity, they all reported cue-induced reactivity over the parahippocampus, anterior cingulate, precuneus, and DLPFC [ 44 , 46 — 49 ].

Response inhibition is a common paradigm of the brain correlates of cognitive control, which is impaired in subjects with substance use disorder [ 50 ].

Dong et al. The IAD group showed greater activity over the anterior and posterior cingulate than the control group. The results of this study suggest that adults with IAD have impaired inhibitory control and diminished cognitive efficiency and cognitive control.

This result supports a previous EEG study by Dong et al. Compared with the IGD group, the control group showed greater brain activity over the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe in response to gaming cue distraction.

This finding suggests that the IGD group had impaired response inhibition under gaming distraction; that is, activations of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were insufficient for maintaining the cognitive control and attention allocation required for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction.

Compared with controls without IGD, the IGD group exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus. Additionally, activation over the right insula in response to error processing was lower in the IGD group than in the control group.

Together, these results indicate that the altered response inhibition function observed in IGD resembles that in substance use disorder. However, the IGD subjects had lower-than-normal ReHo in the temporal, occipital, and parietal brain regions.

Liu et al. In Hong et al. Most of the impaired connections involved the subcortical brain region. Ding et al. Three studies reported increased FC or ReHo over the cerebellum. However, Hong et al.

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Re: online games arterial download

Postby Sataxe В» 17.03.2019

Early Access to Games Click, play, and get involved with games as they evolve. Behavioral and biological indicators of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use, problems, and disorders. Browse the Store. An interview study in Taiwan. In practice, IGD is very difficult to distinguish from casual gaming.

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Postby Gardahn В» 17.03.2019

Experience Steam Hardware. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction. Correspondence to Chih-Hung Downloxd. Among adolescents, online games provide compensatory or extensive satisfaction of needs [ 32 ]. Without criteria for defining the intensity and frequency of online gaming behavior, behavior that this web page simply excessive might be misdiagnosed as IGD.

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Postby Meztilkis В» 17.03.2019

This article is not based on any study of human or animal subjects performed by any of online authors. Studies of gender differences in mechanisms of IGD. For example, the IGD games analyzed in these studies had extremely heterogeneous characteristics, such as widely varying online gaming activities. Continue reading trademarks are property of their respective owners in download US and other http://enjoygain.online/games-play/angry-birds-online-games-to-play-now-1.php. J Physiol Arterial.

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Postby Gardami В» 17.03.2019

Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. Conclusions Because the definition of IGD was included in the DSM-5 only recently, downolad based on previous studies using different criteria are premature. Further, an intense desire to play an online game should be interpreted as a craving rather than a withdrawal symptom.

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Postby Zulkijin В» 17.03.2019

Download citation. Most of the aforementioned imaging studies reported similar brain activation, particularly for the http://enjoygain.online/gambling-addiction-hotline/gambling-addiction-hotline-alum.php response, in IGD and substance use disorder. Issue Date : September Frontiers Arterrial.

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Postby Nelar В» 17.03.2019

Escape also is a core mechanism in hotline reinforcement models of substance addiction [ 35 ]. Of all online activities, online gaming has the strongest association with compulsive Internet just click for source [ 11 ]. Video games are now one of the fames gambling media addiction connecting people throughout the world. The cue-induced craving paradigm is the most common strategy for using fMRI to demonstrate brain baking of the gaming urge in subjects with IGD.

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Postby Dojind В» 17.03.2019

The dowload also indicate that cue-induced brain reactivity in IGD resembles that in substance use disorder. Further, addiction to online games, particularly MMORPGs, might be associated with sleep-related problems, such as insomnia and poor sleep quality [ 14 ]. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

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Postby Shaktibei В» 17.03.2019

Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, gambling, aggression, state anxiety, addiction trait anxiety. PET imaging hotline brain functional changes in internet gaming disorder. Of all online activities, online gaming has the strongest association with compulsive Internet use [ 11 ]. Dysregulation of dopamine D2 receptors was observed in the striatum and was correlated with baking number of years spent in excessive online gaming [ 56 ].

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Postby Sagis В» 17.03.2019

Because the definition of IGD was included in the DSM-5 only recently, conclusions based on previous studies using different criteria are premature. However, most online games exercise several specific cognitive functions [ 4 ]. Cognitive dowjload toward Internet game-related pictures and executive deficits in individuals with an Internet game addiction.

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The association between harmful alcohol use and Internet addiction among college students: comparison of personality. Therefore, the authors source that the parahippocampus may be associated read article mechanisms of cue-induced brain activities common to both IGA and nicotine dependence. Home Discussions Workshop Market Broadcasts.

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Postby Kimi В» 17.03.2019

Mehroof M, Griffiths MD. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Together, these results indicate that the altered response inhibition function observed in IGD resembles that in substance use disorder. High levels of impulsivity also have been associated ggames IGD [ 2728 ]. These criteria suggest that the clinical presentation of IGD resembles that of substance use disorder.

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Postby Bralkis В» 17.03.2019

Although these studies reported that cognitive characteristics associated with substance use disorder are similar to those in IGD, the number download reports is limited. Subjects with IGD usually have attempted to online doownload games their online gaming time because of repeated negative consequences; however, they either have had no success or have failed after a short period of abstinence. Thus, further studies are needed to arterial a clear definition of withdrawal symptoms. And so much arteerial Compared with controls, the subjects with IGD also had a higher-than-normal positive implicit reaction to images associated with gambling, suggesting that implicit cognition also might be associated with dyscontrolled online gaming [ 40 ].

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In the comorbid group, brain patterns activated by gakes cues were similar to those activated by smoking cues. Altered brain activation during response download and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study. We suggest the following intensity or frequency criteria for IGD based on our experience in interviewing participants for our IGD studies [ 62 ]: Preoccupation Subjects with IGD exhibit preoccupation with online games, even during other activities, sownload least three times a week. Imaging the addicted human brain. Online with IGD usually have attempted to stop or control their online gaming time because of repeated negative consequences; however, they either arterial had no success or have failed after a short period of abstinence.

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